hcl ra kcl

Preparing a Buffer Solution

Adapted from Robinson, R. A., and Stokes, R. H., Electrolyte solutions, the measurement and interpretation of conductance, chemical potential, and diffusion in solutions of simple electrolytes, 2nd ed., rev. London, Butterworths, 1968.

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Buffer solutions

A. 50 mL 0.2 M KCl + volume indicated (in mL) 0.2 M HCl
B. 100 mL 0.1 M potassium hydrogen phthalate + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M HCl.
C. 100 mL 0.1 M potassium hydrogen phthalate + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M NaOH.
D. 100 mL 0.1 M KH2PO4 + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M NaOH.
E. 100 mL 0.1 M tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M HCl.
F. 100 mL 0.025 M Na2B4O7.10H2O (borax) + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M HCl.
G. 100 mL 0.025 M Na2B4O7.10H2O (borax) + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M NaOH.
H. 100 mL 0.05 M NaHCO3 + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M NaOH.
I. 100 mL 0.05 M Na2HPO4 + volume indicated (in mL) 0.1 M NaOH.
J. 50 mL 0.2 M KCl + volume indicated (in mL) 0.2 M NaOH.
Buffer A Buffer B Buffer C Buffer D Buffer E
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pH volume

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1.00 134.0 2.20 99.0 4.10 2.6 5.80 7.2 7.00 93.2
1.10 105.6 2.30 91.6 4.20 6.0 5.90 9.2 7.10 91.4
1.20 85.0 2.40 84.4 4.30 9.4 6.00 11.2 7.20 89.4
1.30 67.2 2.50 77.6 4.40 13.2 6.10 13.6 7.30 86.8
1.40 53.2 2.60 70.8 4.50 17.4 6.20 16.2 7.40 84.0
1.50 41.4 2.70 64.2 4.60 22.2 6.30 19.4 7.50 80.6
1.60 32.4 2.80 57.8 4.70 27.2 6.40 23.2 7.60 77.0
1.70 26.0 2.90 51.4 4.80 33.0 6.50 27.8 7.70 73.2
1.80 20.4 3.00 44.6 4.90 38.8 6.60 32.8 7.80 69.0
1.90 16.2 3.10 37.6 5.00 45.2 6.70 38.6 7.90 64.0
2.00 13.0 3.20 31.4 5.10 51.0 6.80 44.8 8.00 58.4
2.10 10.2 3.30 25.8 5.20 57.6 6.90 51.8 8.l0 52.4
2.20 7.8 3.40 20.8 5.30 63.2 7.00 58.2 8.20 45.8
3.50 16.4 5.40 68.2 7.10 64.2 8.30 39.8
3.60 12.6 5.50 73.2 7.20 69.4 8.40 34.4
3.70 9.0 5.60 77.6 7.30 74.0 8.50 29.4
3.80 5.8 5.70 81.2 7.40 78.2 8.60 24.4
3.90 2.8 5.80 84.6 7.50 82.2 8.70 20.6
4.00 0.2 5.90 87.4 7.60 85.6 8.80 17.0
7.70 88.4 8.90 14.0
7.80 90.6 9.00 11.4
7.90 92.2
8.00 93.4
Buffer F Buffer G Buffer H Buffer I Buffer J
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pH volume

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pH volume

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8.00 41.0 9.20 1.8 9.60 10.0 10.90 6.6 12.00 12.0
8.10 39.4 9.30 7.2 9.70 12.4 11.00 8.2 12.10 16.0
8.20 37.6 9.40 12.4 9.80 15.2 11.10 10.2 12.20 20.4
8.30 35.4 9.50 17.6 9.90 18.2 11.20 12.6 12.30 25.6
8.40 33.2 9.60 22.2 10.00 21.4 11.30 15.2 12.40 32.4
8.50 30.4 9.70 26.2 10.10 24.4 11.40 18.2 12.50 40.8
8.60 27.0 9.80 30.0 10.20 27.6 11.50 22.2 12.60 51.2
8.70 23.2 9.90 33.4 10.30 30.4 11.60 27.0 12.70 64.4
8.80 19.2 10.00 36.6 10.40 33.0 11.70 32.4 12.80 82.4
8.90 14.2 10.10 39.0 10.50 35.6 11.80 38.8 12.90 106.0
9.00 9.2 10.20 41.0 10.60 38.2 11.90 46.0 13.00 132.0
9.10 4.0 10.30 42.6 10.70 40.4 12.00 53.8
10.40 44.2 10.80 42.4
10.50 45.4 10.90 44.0
10.60 46.6 11.00 45.4
10.70 47.6
10.80 48.5

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