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This article is about a genus of plants. For the Cockney rhyming slang brassic ("penniless"), see Boracic lint.
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Brassica () is a genus of plants in the cabbage and mustard family (Brassicaceae). The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plants. Crops from this genus are sometimes called cole crops—derived from the Latin caulis, denoting the stem or stalk of a plant.
The genus Brassica is known for its important agricultural and horticultural crops and also includes a number of weeds, both of wild taxa and escapees from cultivation. Brassica species and varieties commonly used for food include bok choy, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, choy sum, kohlrabi, napa cabbage, rutabaga, turnip and some seeds used in the production of canola oil and the condiment mustard. Over 30 wild species and hybrids are in cultivation, plus numerous cultivars and hybrids of cultivated origin. Most are seasonal plants (annuals or biennials), but some are small shrubs. Brassica plants have been the subject of much scientific interest for their agricultural importance. Six particular species (B. carinata, B. juncea, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. nigra, and B. rapa) evolved by the combining of chromosomes from three earlier species, as described by the triangle of U theory.
The genus is native to tát Western Europe, the Mediterranean and temperate regions of Asia. Many wild species grow as weeds, especially in North America, South America, and nước Australia.
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A dislike for cabbage or broccoli may result from the fact that these plants contain a compound similar to tát phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is either bitter or tasteless to tát people depending on their taste buds.
The flowers, seeds, stalks, and tender leaves of many species of Brassica can be eaten raw or cooked. Almost all parts of some species have been developed for food, including the root (swede, turnip), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbage, collard greens, kale), flowers (cauliflower, broccoli, romanesco broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbage), and seeds (many, including mustard seed, and oil-producing rapeseed). Some forms with white or purple foliage or flowerheads are also sometimes grown for ornament.
Brassica species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica.
Boiling substantially reduces the levels of broccoli glucosinolates, while other cooking methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on glucosinolate levels.
The following species are accepted:
- Brassica assyriaca Mouterde
- Brassica aucheri Boiss.
- Brassica baldensis (Prosser & Bertolli) Prosser & Bertolli
- Brassica balearica Pers. – Mallorca cabbage
- Brassica barrelieri (L.) Janka
- Brassica beytepeensis Yıld.
- Brassica bourgeaui (Webb ex Christ) Kuntze
- Brassica cadmea Heldr. ex O.E.Schulz
- Brassica carinata A.Braun – Abyssinian mustard or Abyssinian cabbage, used to tát produce biodiesel
- Brassica cretica Lam.
- Brassica deflexa Boiss.
- Brassica deserti Danin & Hedge
- Brassica desnottesii Emb. & Maire
- Brassica dimorpha Coss. & Durieu
- Brassica elongata Ehrh. – elongated mustard
- Brassica fruticulosa Cirillo – Mediterranean cabbage
- Brassica gravinae Ten.
- Brassica hilarionis Post – St. Hilarion cabbage
- Brassica incana Ten.
- Brassica insularis Moris
- Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. – Indian mustard, brown and leaf mustards, Sarepta mustard
- Brassica loncholoma Pomel
- Brassica macrocarpa Guss.
- Brassica maurorum Durieu
- Brassica montana Pourr.
- Brassica napus L. – rapeseed, rutabaga, Siberian kale
- Brassica nivalis Boiss. & Heldr.
- Brassica oleracea L. – kale, cabbage, collard greens, broccoli, cauliflower, kai-lan, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi
- Brassica oxyrrhina Coss.
- Brassica procumbens (Poir.) O.E.Schulz
- Brassica rapa L. – Chinese cabbage, turnip, rapini
- Brassica repanda (Willd.) DC.
- Brassica rupestris Raf.
- Brassica setulosa (Boiss. & Reut.) Coss.
- Brassica somalensis Hedge & A.G.Mill.
- Brassica souliei (Batt.) Batt.
- Brassica spinescens Pomel
- Brassica taiwanensis S.S.Ying
- Brassica taurica (Tzvelev) Tzvelev
- Brassica trichocarpa C.Brullo, Brullo, Giusso & Ilardi
- Brassica tyrrhena Giotta, Piccitto & Arrigoni
- Brassica villosa Biv.
Species formerly placed in Brassica
- B. alba or B. hirta (white or yellow mustard)—see Sinapis alba
- B. geniculata (hoary mustard)—see Hirschfeldia incana
- B. kaber (wild mustard or charlock)—see Rhamphospermum arvense
- B. nigra —see Rhamphospermum nigrum
Genome sequencing and genetics
Bayer CropScience (in collaboration with BGI-Shenzhen, China; KeyGene; the Netherlands and the University of Queensland, Australia) announced it had sequenced the entire genome of rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus) and its constituent genomes present in B. rapa and B. oleracea in 2009. The B. rapa genome was sequenced by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project in 2011. This also represents the A genome component of the amphidiploid crop species B. napus and B. juncea.
'Brassica' was Pliny the Elder's name for several cabbage-like plants.
- ^ a b "Brassica L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- ^ "caulis". Wordnik. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- ^ Overfield, Theresa (1995). "Phenylthiocarbamide". Biological Variations in Health and Illness: Race, Age, and Sex Differences. CRC Press. pp. 102–3. ISBN 978-0-8493-4577-7.
- ^ Nyerges, Christopher (2016). Foraging Wild Edible Plants of North America: More phàn nàn 150 Delicious Recipes Using Nature's Edibles. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 120–122. ISBN 978-1-4930-1499-6.
- ^ Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Verkerk, Ruud; Widianarko, Budi; Dekker, Matthijs (25 November 2014). "A Mechanistic Perspective on Process-Induced Changes in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica Vegetables: A Review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 55 (6): 823–838. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.688076. PMID 24915330. S2CID 25728864.
- ^ "Bayer CropScience first to tát sequence the entire genome of rapeseed/canola" (Press release). Bayer CropScience. 9 October 2009. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- ^ Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; et al. (2011). "The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa". Nature Genetics. 43 (10): 1035–9. doi:10.1038/ng.919. PMID 21873998. S2CID 205358099.
- ^ Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 76
- Media related to tát Brassica at Wikimedia Commons